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  • individuals, characters, folks 替换 people , persons.
  • positive, favorable, rosy, promising, perfect, pleasurable, excellent, outstanding, superior 替换 good.
  • dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill 替换 bad(如果bad做表语,可以有be less impressive替换。)
  • an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of, a host of, if not most 替换 many.
  • a slice of, quiet a few 替换 some.
  • harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that 替换 think。
  • affair, business, matter 替换 thing.
  • shared 替换 common .
  • reap huge fruits 替换 get many benefits.
  • for my part ,from my own perspective 替换 in my opinion.
  • Increasing(ly), growing 替换 more and more(注意没有growingly这种形式。所以当修饰名词时用increasing/growing修饰形容词,副词用increasingly.)
  • little if anything或little or nothing 替换 hardly.
  • beneficial, rewarding 替换 helpful.
  • shopper, client, consumer, purchaser 替换 customer.
  • overwhelmingly, exceedingly, extremely, intensely 替换 very.
  • hardly necessary, hardly inevitable…替换 unnecessary, avoidable.
  • indispensable 替换 necessary.
  • sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendous fascination on sb 替换sb take interest in / sb. be interested in.
  • capture one’s attention 替换 attract one’s attention.
  • facet, demension, sphere 替换 aspet.
  • be indicative of, be suggestive of, be fearful of 替换 indicate,suggest, fear.
  • give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 替换 cause.
  • There are several reasons behind sth 替换…reasons for sth.
  • desire 替换 want.
  • pour attention into 替换 pay attention to.
  • bear in mind that 替换 remember.
  • enjoy, possess 替换 have(注意process是过程的意思)。
  • interaction 替换 communication.
  • frown on sth 替换 be against , disagree with sth .
  • as an example 替换 for example, for instance.
  • next to / virtually impossible 替换 nearly / almost impossible.
  • regarding / concerning 替换 about.
  • crucial /paramount 替换 important.
  • 第一(in the first place/the first and foremost);第二(there is one more point, I should touch on, that…);第三(the last but not the least).
  • assiduous 替换 hard-working.
  • arduous 替换 difficult.
  • underdeveloped / financially-challenged 替换poor(因为poor通常含有贬义).
  • demonstrate / manifest 替换 show
  • invariably 替换 always.
  • perilous / hazardous替换 dangerous.
  • formidable 替换 difficult
  • quintessential 替换 typical(举例时常用,例如:a quintessential example should be cited that=for example; for instance).
  • distinguished 替换 famous.
  • feasible 替换 possible.
  • consequently, accordingly替换 so.
  • 通常,由数据推断出一定的结论,用Results indicate, infer, suggest, imply that……


Much of the research in sexual selection in the last two decades has examined how a female’s preference that does not influence her immediate reproductive success can still evolve if it is genetically correlated with another character under direct selection.(不要每次写到研究时总用study,可以用些其它的词汇,比如examine,work。)

Two hypotheses for female preference evolution—runaway sexual selection and good genes selection—state that preferences evolve indirectly because they are genetically correlated with male traits that are under direct selection; that is, the preferences themselves are not under direct selection.(在引述别人的观点时,如果不能完全同意,使用state 比show更加中立些。)

Studies of receiver biases suggest that such analogies might not be broadly applicable.(suggest,又一种较为客观的引述观点的表达方法。)

Burley argued that the preference for red beaks is adaptive because it indicates male health, and this preference is then transferred to leg-band color.(argue,引用别人观点的又一表述。)

According to the anti-monotony hypothesis, habituation plays an important role in the evolution of complex vocalizations in songbirds: Increased song complexity reduces habituation of neighboring males and courting females.(根据…)

Previous studies of acoustic and bioluminescent interactions had emphasized potential advantages to group-signaling organization, such as minimizing predation, preserving species-specific signal characters, or increasing the attractiveness of the group.(带有小小的强调)

48.常见的连接词有,However, also, in addition, consequently, afterwards, moreover, Furthermore, further, although, unlike, in contrast, Similarly, Unfortunately, alternatively, parallel results, In order to, despite, For example, Compared with, other results, thus, therefore……用好连接词能使文章层次清楚,意思明确。比如,叙述有时间顺序的事件或文献,最早的文献可用AA advocated it for the first time.接下来可用Then BB further demonstrated that. 再接下来,可用Afterwards, CC……如果还有,可用More recent studies by DD……